Huaynaputina eruption. February 19, 1600. Near Arequipa, southern Peru. The death toll is unknown, but it's direct consequences may make it one of the deadliest natural disasters of all time. Scientists now believe that the extreme weather conditions in Russia which caused progressive harvests to fail at the start of the 16th century and led to the famines of 1601-1603, in which some two million people died, were due to the Huaynaputina eruption.