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The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance on a skull which results from a periosteal reaction manifesting as perpendicular trabeculations interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. It is classically described with plain skull radiographs although can also be appreciated on CT or MRI 3. Causes include: thalassaemia major sickle cell disease hereditary spherocytosis iron deficiency anaemia

The odontoid process fracture (also known as the PEG or dens fracture) occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. In this case a Type 2. Type 2 - fracture at the base of the odontoid ; unstable, and has a high risk of non-union. See more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/odontoid-fracture

Inccidental finding of a heavily calcified infra-renal aortic aneurysm on the plain x-ray images that were undertaken for back pain. No lumb...