The surahs (chapters) in this Koran are written in a combination of six lines of naskh in a text panel, with a line of thuluth above and below and surah headings in kufic set apart in illuminated panels. Iran, probably Shiraz. 1336-1354 A.D. 21.9 x 14.3 cm. Thuluth, naskh and kufic scripts. Courtesy of the Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic Art.
This fragment contains the surah al-Fatihah (the Opening), and al-Baqarah (the Cow). The script is remarkable for its size, each line being roughly 4 cm high. Iran. Later 11th century. Kufic script. Courtesy of the Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic Art.
Calligraphers in the Maghrib (i.e. North Africa and Spain) favored thin, light letters with deep flourishes that curve below the line and create a rhythmic effect, as seen in this folio. Iran. 11th–12th century. 32.3 x 21.4 cm. Kufic script. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.
The flowing movement of the script used here, with its sweeping curves and slightly rounded letters, is characteristic of the maghribi script. North Africa. 13th century. 16.5 x 15.5 cm. Maghribi script. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.