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The Flavian amphitheatre in Rome, better known as the Colosseum, was built between May 24 70 CE and June 29 80 CE under the reign of Emperor Vespasian and later inaugurated by his son Titus.

Lucius Aelius Seianus or Sejanus (20 BCE-31 CE) was the commander of the praetorian guard under the emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE). Coming from an obscure equestrian family, he managed to become one of the closest advisor of Tiberius, hoping to become his successor or a regent to a young heir. After the death of Drusus, Tiberius' son, he started to persecute all his possible rivals, a task he made easier by driving Tiberius into paranoia and convincing him to retire to Capri in a self-imposed…

Sejanus

Lucius Aelius Seianus or Sejanus (20 BCE-31 CE) was the commander of the praetorian guard under the emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE). Coming from an obscure equestrian family, he managed to become one of the closest advisor of Tiberius, hoping to become his successor or a regent to a young heir. After the death of Drusus, Tiberius' son, he started to persecute all his possible rivals, a task he made easier by driving Tiberius into paranoia and convincing him to retire to Capri in a self-imposed…

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time. As emperor Publius Lucinius Valerianus - commonly referred to as Valerian - would battle repeated incursions from the north and east, rarely stepping foot in Rome. Eventually, however, he would meet his unfortunate death at the hands of an enemy king and so become the only emperor to ever die in captivity.

Valerian

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time. As emperor Publius Lucinius Valerianus - commonly referred to as Valerian - would battle repeated incursions from the north and east, rarely stepping foot in Rome. Eventually, however, he would meet his unfortunate death at the hands of an enemy king and so become the only emperor to ever die in captivity.

Ure Museum, 38.4.8.   Date: 550-525 BCE  Shape: Lekythos  Material: Attic Black Figure Terracotta

Attic Black Figure Lekythos

Ure Museum, 38.4.8. Date: 550-525 BCE Shape: Lekythos Material: Attic Black Figure Terracotta

The gladius Hispaniensis or Spanish sword was first used by tribes in the Iberian peninsula and, following the Punic Wars, became the standard sword of Roman legionaries from the 2nd century BCE as its relatively short and double-edged blade made it ideal for cutting and thrusting in the confined space of hand to hand combat on the ancient battlefield.

Gladius Hispaniensis

The gladius Hispaniensis or Spanish sword was first used by tribes in the Iberian peninsula and, following the Punic Wars, became the standard sword of Roman legionaries from the 2nd century BCE as its relatively short and double-edged blade made it ideal for cutting and thrusting in the confined space of hand to hand combat on the ancient battlefield.

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Horace, was one of Rome’s best-loved poets and, along with his fellow poet Virgil, a member of Emperor Augustus’ inner circle at the imperial palace. Despite his early allegiance to one of Julius Caesar’s assassins during the early dark days of the civil war, Horace eventually became a close friend to the emperor and supported his attempts at moral reform, believing it brought new life to a suffering empire, a new…

Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Horace, was one of Rome’s best-loved poets and, along with his fellow poet Virgil, a member of Emperor Augustus’ inner circle at the imperial palace. Despite his early allegiance to one of Julius Caesar’s assassins during the early dark days of the civil war, Horace eventually became a close friend to the emperor and supported his attempts at moral reform, believing it brought new life to a suffering empire, a new…

The Great Cameo of France is a five-layered sardonyx cameo divided into three levels which depicts members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, circa 23 CE.  The Great Cameo of France is the largest cameo to survive from the ancient world. It contains 24 engraved figures. The dead are placed in the upper part, while the middle register represents the world of the living.  Tiberius in the center of the cameo sits on his throne, along with his mother and the wife of Augustus. (Photo by Carole…

Great Cameo of France

The Great Cameo of France is a five-layered sardonyx cameo divided into three levels which depicts members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, circa 23 CE. The Great Cameo of France is the largest cameo to survive from the ancient world. It contains 24 engraved figures. The dead are placed in the upper part, while the middle register represents the world of the living. Tiberius in the center of the cameo sits on his throne, along with his mother and the wife of Augustus. (Photo by Carole…

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the tribuni plebis and tribuni militum. The military tribunes were responsible for many administrative and logistics duties, and could lead a section of a legion under a consul, or even command one alone on the battlefield. The tribuni plebis wielded great political power as they effectively ran the popular assembly of Rome, proposing bills to vote on and able to personally veto senatorial…

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the tribuni plebis and tribuni militum. The military tribunes were responsible for many administrative and logistics duties, and could lead a section of a legion under a consul, or even command one alone on the battlefield. The tribuni plebis wielded great political power as they effectively ran the popular assembly of Rome, proposing bills to vote on and able to personally veto senatorial…

Citizenship is and always has been a valued possession of any individual. When one studies the majority of ancient empires one finds that the concept of citizenship, in any form, was non-existent. The people in these societies did not and could not participate in the affairs of their government. These governments were either theocratic or under the control of a non-elected sovereign, answerable to no one except himself. (Article by Donald L. Wasson) --AHE

Roman Citizenship

Citizenship is and always has been a valued possession of any individual. When one studies the majority of ancient empires one finds that the concept of citizenship, in any form, was non-existent. The people in these societies did not and could not participate in the affairs of their government. These governments were either theocratic or under the control of a non-elected sovereign, answerable to no one except himself. (Article by Donald L. Wasson) --AHE

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He responded to a call from the city fathers, left his plow lying in the fields, donned his senatorial toga, and led the Roman forces to victory over the invading Aequi, only to return to his small farm fifteen days later. For generations, he served as the symbol to Romans young and old of what a loyal citizen ought to aspire.

Cincinnatus

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He responded to a call from the city fathers, left his plow lying in the fields, donned his senatorial toga, and led the Roman forces to victory over the invading Aequi, only to return to his small farm fifteen days later. For generations, he served as the symbol to Romans young and old of what a loyal citizen ought to aspire.

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