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The Flavian amphitheatre in Rome, better known as the Colosseum, was built between May 24 70 CE and June 29 80 CE under the reign of Emperor Vespasian and later inaugurated by his son Titus. It was one...

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time. As emperor Publius Lucinius Valerianus - commonly referred to as Valerian - would battle repeated incursions from the north and east, rarely stepping foot in Rome. Eventually, however, he would meet his unfortunate death at the hands of an enemy king and so become the only emperor to ever die in captivity.

Valerian

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time. As emperor Publius Lucinius Valerianus - commonly referred to as Valerian - would battle repeated incursions from the north and east, rarely stepping foot in Rome. Eventually, however, he would meet his unfortunate death at the hands of an enemy king and so become the only emperor to ever die in captivity.

Ure Museum, 38.4.8.   Date: 550-525 BCE  Shape: Lekythos  Material: Attic Black Figure Terracotta

Attic Black Figure Lekythos

Ure Museum, 38.4.8. Date: 550-525 BCE Shape: Lekythos Material: Attic Black Figure Terracotta

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He responded to a call from the city fathers, left his plow lying in the fields, donned his senatorial toga, and led the Roman forces to victory over the invading Aequi, only to return to his small farm fifteen days later. For generations, he served as the symbol to Romans young and old of what a loyal citizen ought to aspire.

Cincinnatus

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He responded to a call from the city fathers, left his plow lying in the fields, donned his senatorial toga, and led the Roman forces to victory over the invading Aequi, only to return to his small farm fifteen days later. For generations, he served as the symbol to Romans young and old of what a loyal citizen ought to aspire.

Map of Etruscan and Greek influence in Italy (Illustration) -- Ancient History Encyclopedia

Map of Etruscan and Greek influence in Italy (Illustration) -- Ancient History Encyclopedia

The Great Cameo of France is a five-layered sardonyx cameo divided into three levels which depicts members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, circa 23 CE.  The Great Cameo of France is the largest cameo to survive from the ancient world. It contains 24 engraved figures. The dead are placed in the upper part, while the middle register represents the world of the living.  Tiberius in the center of the cameo sits on his throne, along with his mother and the wife of Augustus. (Photo by Carole…

Great Cameo of France

The Great Cameo of France is a five-layered sardonyx cameo divided into three levels which depicts members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, circa 23 CE. The Great Cameo of France is the largest cameo to survive from the ancient world. It contains 24 engraved figures. The dead are placed in the upper part, while the middle register represents the world of the living. Tiberius in the center of the cameo sits on his throne, along with his mother and the wife of Augustus. (Photo by Carole…

It is very common to hear in both academic circles, as well as more close-knit Stoic circles, Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 CE) being referred to as the philosopher king. Marcus Aurelius was definitely an amazing individual. He was adopted first by the Emperor Hadrian (76 – 138 CE) and then later by Antoninus Pius (86 – 161 CE). Marcus was educated by the best teachers in rhetoric, poetry, Greek, Latin, and of course, philosophy. The latter is the subject that he prized above all. -- AHE

Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher Emperor or Philosopher-King?

It is very common to hear in both academic circles, as well as more close-knit Stoic circles, Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 CE) being referred to as the philosopher king. Marcus Aurelius was definitely an amazing individual. He was adopted first by the Emperor Hadrian (76 – 138 CE) and then later by Antoninus Pius (86 – 161 CE). Marcus was educated by the best teachers in rhetoric, poetry, Greek, Latin, and of course, philosophy. The latter is the subject that he prized above all. -- AHE

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified city or military camp, siege warfare became a necessity, despite its high expense in money, time, and men. The Romans became adept at the art of siege warfare employing all manner of strategies and machinery to batter the enemy into submission. (By Mark Cartwright) --AHE

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified city or military camp, siege warfare became a necessity, despite its high expense in money, time, and men. The Romans became adept at the art of siege warfare employing all manner of strategies and machinery to batter the enemy into submission. (By Mark Cartwright) --AHE

Western Civilization is forever indebted to the people of ancient Greece and Rome. Among the numerous contributions these societies made are in the fields of art, literature and philosophy; however, perhaps their greatest gift to future generations was the modern perception of government. The contemporary idea of democracy, while borne out of the political struggles in the city of Athens, came to fruition in the Roman Republic. (Info by Donald L. Wasson) -- AHE

Roman Government

Western Civilization is forever indebted to the people of ancient Greece and Rome. Among the numerous contributions these societies made are in the fields of art, literature and philosophy; however, perhaps their greatest gift to future generations was the modern perception of government. The contemporary idea of democracy, while borne out of the political struggles in the city of Athens, came to fruition in the Roman Republic. (Info by Donald L. Wasson) -- AHE

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