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from Letters from Gondwana.

Unlocking the secrets of the Crater of Doom.

The noble and ancient city of Gubbio laid out along the ridges of Mount Ingino in Umbria, was founded by Etruscans between the second and first centuries B.C. The city has an exceptional artistic a…

Staurolite twins - also known as fairy crosses - I LOVE these

Basalt: extrusive igneous mafic rock; composed mostly of pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar & olivine; ferromagnesian minerals (olivine & pyroxene) are dark-colored minerals that contain a significant amount of iron and/or magnesium; less silicic than pyroclastic material from Mt. St. Helens ex: Hawaiian islands

Tufa- a limestone that is formed by its surroundings

New York State geological survey

Sunstone - Oregon state gem, is an interesting feldspar gemstone with a glittery appearance and usually an orange or reddish color, hence its name. The glitter effect is caused by inclusions of the mineral Hematite, or sometimes also Goethite or Pyrite (and in one rare instance, Copper). The term used to describe the glittery effect exhibited on Sunstone is aventurescence.

Found at Rockaway Beach, Oregon. Carnelian: The gemstone carnelian information and pictures