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SUBMARINE TELESCOPE AND LAMP       It's difficult to find any in-depth information about early inventor Sarah Mather. Her combination telescope and lamp for submarines, patented in 1845, speaks for itself.

SUBMARINE TELESCOPE AND LAMP It's difficult to find any in-depth information about early inventor Sarah Mather. Her combination telescope and lamp for submarines, patented in 1845, speaks for itself.

THE DISHWASHER       Patented in 1886, the first dishwasher combined high water pressure, a wheel, a boiler, and a wire rack like the ones still used for dish drying. Inventor Josephine Cochrane never used it herself, but it made life easier for her servants.

THE DISHWASHER Patented in 1886, the first dishwasher combined high water pressure, a wheel, a boiler, and a wire rack like the ones still used for dish drying. Inventor Josephine Cochrane never used it herself, but it made life easier for her servants.

Microbiologist and pediatrician Hattie Elizabeth Alexander began working on Haemophilus influenza in the early 1930s. The bacteria caused influenzal meningitis with a near 100% mortality rate in infants and children. Alexander’s development of an antiserum as well as her work to standardize diagnosis and treatment, dropped the mortality rate down below 25%.

34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Microbiologist and pediatrician Hattie Elizabeth Alexander began working on Haemophilus influenza in the early 1930s. The bacteria caused influenzal meningitis with a near 100% mortality rate in infants and children. Alexander’s development of an antiserum as well as her work to standardize diagnosis and treatment, dropped the mortality rate down below 25%.

Dr. Patricia Era Bath is an African American and Native American ophthalmologist, inventor of the Laserphaco Probe.  Bath is the first African American woman doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. Her Laserphaco Probe is used to treat cataracts.

Dr. Patricia Era Bath is an African American and Native American ophthalmologist, inventor of the Laserphaco Probe. Bath is the first African American woman doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. Her Laserphaco Probe is used to treat cataracts.

From 1916 to 1957, Harvard College astronomer Margaret Harwood (1885-1979) directed the Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket Island, and ran its female-founded and female-run nonprofit science education institute; she spent summers on the island doing research and conducting classes.

From 1916 to 1957, Harvard College astronomer Margaret Harwood (1885-1979) directed the Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket Island, and ran its female-founded and female-run nonprofit science education institute; she spent summers on the island doing research and conducting classes.

Marie Van Brittan Brown. First person to develop the patent for closed circuit television security; motorized camera and four peepholes. The camera could be moved from one peephole to the next, and images were displayed on a monitor. The door could also be unlocked remotely using an electrical switch. Brown’s invention was patented in 1969, and became the framework for the modern closed circuit television system that is widely used for surveillance, crime prevention, and traffic monitoring.

Marie Van Brittan Brown. First person to develop the patent for closed circuit television security; motorized camera and four peepholes. The camera could be moved from one peephole to the next, and images were displayed on a monitor. The door could also be unlocked remotely using an electrical switch. Brown’s invention was patented in 1969, and became the framework for the modern closed circuit television system that is widely used for surveillance, crime prevention, and traffic monitoring.

Biochemist Florence Barbara Seibert (1897–1991) developed the skin test for tuberculosis. After graduating from Goucher College, she worked as a chemist during World War I and then went to Yale University, where she earned a Ph.D. and made important discoveries about the ability of some bacteria to survive distillation techniques and therefore contaminate intravenous injections. During the 1930s, she taught at University of Pennsylvania.

Biochemist Florence Barbara Seibert (1897–1991) developed the skin test for tuberculosis. After graduating from Goucher College, she worked as a chemist during World War I and then went to Yale University, where she earned a Ph.D. and made important discoveries about the ability of some bacteria to survive distillation techniques and therefore contaminate intravenous injections. During the 1930s, she taught at University of Pennsylvania.

At the time of her death in 1980, pioneer American aviator Jacqueline Cochran held more speed, altitude, and distance records than any other male or female pilot in aviation history. She was also the first woman to break the sound barrier, doing so in 1953 in an F-86 Sabre jet.

At the time of her death in 1980, pioneer American aviator Jacqueline Cochran held more speed, altitude, and distance records than any other male or female pilot in aviation history. She was also the first woman to break the sound barrier, doing so in 1953 in an F-86 Sabre jet.

THE PAPER BAG       America got a brand new paper bag when cotton mill worker Margaret Knight invented a machine to make them with a flat square bottom in 1868. (Paper bags originally looked more like envelopes.) A man named Charles Annan saw her design and tried to patent the idea first. Knight filed a lawsuit and won the patent fair and square in 1871.

THE PAPER BAG America got a brand new paper bag when cotton mill worker Margaret Knight invented a machine to make them with a flat square bottom in 1868. (Paper bags originally looked more like envelopes.) A man named Charles Annan saw her design and tried to patent the idea first. Knight filed a lawsuit and won the patent fair and square in 1871.

Mildred Adams Fenton (1899–1995) trained in paleontology and geology at the University of Iowa. She and her husband, Carroll Lane Fenton, wrote dozens of science books together.

Mildred Adams Fenton (1899–1995) trained in paleontology and geology at the University of Iowa. She and her husband, Carroll Lane Fenton, wrote dozens of science books together.

Mildred Adams Fenton trained in paleontology and geology at the University of Iowa. She coauthored dozens of general science books with her husband, Carroll Lane Fenton, including Records of Evolution Land We Live On and Worlds in the Sky

Mary Anderson (1866–1953) was the inventor of windshield wipers. She thought of the idea after a visit to NYC during the winter when drivers had to keep reaching out of their vehicles to wipe off the windshield.

Mary Anderson (1866–1953) was the inventor of windshield wipers. She thought of the idea after a visit to NYC during the winter when drivers had to keep reaching out of their vehicles to wipe off the windshield.

Elise Depew Strang L'Esperance (1878–1959), Cornell University, shown here in 1951 with her Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award, was a pioneer in cancer treatment for women and had received the award jointly with Catherine Macfarlane. She earned an M.D. in 1902 but by 1908 had shifted from medical practice to research, becoming professor of pathology at Cornell University Medical College in 1920. In 1937, she founded the first cancer clinic focused on treatment of women.

Elise Depew Strang L'Esperance (1878–1959), Cornell University, shown here in 1951 with her Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award, was a pioneer in cancer treatment for women and had received the award jointly with Catherine Macfarlane. She earned an M.D. in 1902 but by 1908 had shifted from medical practice to research, becoming professor of pathology at Cornell University Medical College in 1920. In 1937, she founded the first cancer clinic focused on treatment of women.

Ellen Church, who was a registered nurse as well as a licensed pilot, appealed to the chauvinism of airline executives to help women find work in the skies.  “Don’t you think that it would be good psychology to have women up in the air? How is a man going to say he is afraid to fly when a woman is working on the plane?”

Hired for Their Looks, Promoted For Their Heroism: The First Flight Attendants

Ellen Church, who was a registered nurse as well as a licensed pilot, appealed to the chauvinism of airline executives to help women find work in the skies. “Don’t you think that it would be good psychology to have women up in the air? How is a man going to say he is afraid to fly when a woman is working on the plane?”

Rare vintage photograph of an onna-bugeisha, one of the female warriors of the upper social classes in feudal Japan

Rare vintage photograph of an onna-bugeisha, one of the female warriors of the upper social classes in feudal Japan

Actress Helen Kane, the inspiration for the Betty Boop cartoons, never received royalties or credit for them. She was a striking and unique performer who began in Vaudeville.

Actress Helen Kane, the inspiration for the Betty Boop cartoons, never received royalties or credit for them. She was a striking and unique performer who began in Vaudeville.