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β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive a rich autonomic nervous system innervation, mainly by the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Lymphoid organs are not only extensively hardwired but also the immune cells’ activity is tuned by norepinephrine (noradrenaline), neuropeptide Y and ATP released locally from the sympathetic nerve terminals. Thus, major SNS mediators and neurotransmitters […]

A new study by Miguel Relloso and colleagues from the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain, identifies the female sex hormones as important regulators of the T helper (Th)17 response induced by sperm, and related to dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen-presenting cells. Sperm is a foreign antigen (material) and its contact […]

TLRs-Activated Microglia Polarizes γδ T Cells towards a Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cell Phenotype: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Alzheimer´s Disease

Reproduction and Fertility Linked to the Estradiol’s Regulation of NF-κb Translocation in Dendritic Cells