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The highlight is the light hitting an object, opposite of shadow, shows the direction of the light, and comes from the same direction no matter where the viewer is located. Reflection are those light rays bouncing off an object in the direction of the viewer perceived by the eye of the viewer, and changes with the position of the viewer. myb

Human peripheral vision perceives shape, but weakly, and is sensitive to movement. When the viewer looks at Mona Lisa's eyes, the shape of the corners of the upper lip in peripheral vision appear upturned in a smile. But when the viewer looks directly at the whole mouth, there is no smile represented. Thus her enigmatic smile. myb

The perspective of shadows. To draw the shadow of a round object, sketch a cube around it, project the shadow of the cube, and estimate the round within. myb

How to paint better skies, by Scott Naismith. Create grays, not from black and white only, but from the colors around an object to create translucency and visual interest. The cones in the human eye perceive color in "dim" light (not overwhelmingly bright); lights, grays and dark tones mixed from hues look more natural to the human eye than shades of black and white, because cones are seeing combinations of hues. myb

The cones in human eyes perceive color in dim light, so shadows, to look natural, must be made of dark colors, not black-gray. Black paint added to another color becomes too gray to appear real. However, when in a very dark room or out at night, humans cannot see light because the cones in human eyes do not function when it is very dark. Rods do function then, but do not perceive color. People may believe they see color in a dark, familiar environment because they are accustomed to seeing…

Impossible world: Articles: M.C. Escher: More Mathematics Than Meets the Eye. Escher's distorted grid and how he achieved impossible perspective.