Ten terrifying treatments actually administered to patients in old sanitariums featured in "American Horror Story: Asylum", a cable television series. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is featured above.
Joseph Lister promoted the idea of sterile surgery, and introduced carbolic acid now know as phenol to sterilize surgical instruments and clean wounds. He also encourage surgeons to wash their hands between patients, and to wear clean gloves. He also improved medical instruments so that they could be more easily sterilized.