I have four boys and was especially interested in this, so I read it twice. Dr. Sax is both a PhD psychologist and an MD. He identifies factors leading to unmotivated boys. They include developmentally inappropriate curriculum, video games, over-prescription of medications for ADHD, and estrogen-producing chemicals found in plastics. Among other things, Sax advocates for single-sex education for some boys, and boy-friendly curriculum that includes competition and hands-on learning.