Ngaroma Williams & Mary Liz Broadley's project examining how bicultural competence is applied in the education of early childhood teachers with regards to Māori pedagogies, identities, languages and cultural beliefs, and how Māori pedagogies are valued in the provision of early childhood education in Aotearoa. A Kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted, drawing upon qualitative techniques.
Hongi is a traditional Maori greeting, which literally means “to share breath”. Hongi is done by pressing one’s nose to the other person when they meet each other. It is believed that when the two noses meet, people exchange their breath and the visitor becomes one of the local people (tangata whenua).