How you get it: Down's Syndrome is usually not inherited. The only form of this condition that can be inherited is called Translocation Down's Syndrome. Only about four percent of children that have Down's syndrome have translocation. He or she can pass on the translocation to the child, who will and up having an extra copy of Chromosome 21, which is what Down's Syndrome is.
In myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, increased autoimmune activity against 5-HT is associated with immuno-inflammatory pathways and bacterial translocation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664637
When translocations are inherited, the mother or father has some rearranged genetic material, but no extra genetic material — this means he or she is a balanced carrier. A balanced carrier has no signs or symptoms of Down syndrome, but he or she can pass the translocation on to children, causing extra genetic material from chromosome 21.
Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13. This can occur either because each cell contains a full extra copy of chromosome 13 (a disorder known as trisomy 13 or trisomy D), or because each cell contains an extra partial copy of the chromosome (i.e., Robertsonian translocation) or because of mosaic Patau syndrome.
A 25 year old male presents with an enlarged, painless swelling in his neck. His doctor suspects Hodgkin’s disease. What finding would be pathognomic for Hodgkin’s disease? The Reed-Sternberg cell is pathognemonic for Hodgkin's disease. The Reed-Sternberg cell has a multi-lobed nucleus with is a large 'owl eye' nucleoli.Smudge cells (choice a) are cells that have been destroyed during the slide preparation. They are seen in acute leukemias.The Philadelphia chromosome (choice b) is a…