Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973. Parsons developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory, based on the methodological principle of voluntarism and the epistemological principle of analytical realism.
What you're looking at is Talcott Parsons' model of the nuclear family. Brought in during the 1950's and 1960's when structural functionalism was at its peak, this model was known as the way to ascertain the duties and labor to whatever gender a person identified themselves as. Gender inequality, says the functionalist, is a way to maximize to efficiency of labor. Labor roles were predefined--women would be labeled as the main caretakers and men provided for the family.
After Parsons: A Theory of Social Action for the Twenty-First Century (Hardcover)
After Parsons: A Theory of Social Action for the Twenty-First Century