Gilbert de Clare, 5th earl of Gloucester, and his father were among the 25 barons who pledged to enforce the provisions of the Magna Carta,& both were excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. During the 1st baron's war Gilbert first sided with Prince Louis of France, but after the Battle of Lincoln, he changed sides and joined his father-in-law William Marshall, supporting the young Henry III as king. Buried @ Tewkesbury Abbey.
Berenguela I (c. 1179-1246), Queen of Castile (1217) in her own right. She was the daughter of Alfonso VIII and his wife, Eleanor of England. She was Queen of Leon (1197-1204) as the wife of King Alfonso IX. Her surviving children were King Fernando III of Castile-Leon, The Infante Alfonso, and The Infantas Berenguela and Constanza.
Defensless Languedoc Cathars are cut down by French Catholic Crusaders. From the fourteenth century Chronique de France (Chronique de St Denis), British Library, Royal 16, g VI f374v. This is the right hand side of a two panel illustration (The left half is shown above). In this panel The leading crusader can be identified by his coat of arms as Simon de Montfort.
Fontfroide Abbey or l'Abbaye Sainte-Marie de Fontfroide is a former Cistercian monastery in France, situated 15 kilometers south-west of Narbonne near to the Spanish border. It was founded in 1093 by the Viscount of Narbonne. The abbey fought together with Pope Innocent III against the heretical doctrine of the Cathars who lived in the region. It was dissolved in 1791 in the course of the French Revolution.
Monastery and Church of St. Francis of Assisi in Franciscan Street at night in autumn season.. The Franciscan order was founded at the beginning of the 13th century in Italy. Its founder was John Bernardone, later Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226). He obtained the approval of the rule of life of the Friars Minor in 1209 year interpretation-from Pope Innocent III, and in 1223 written from Pope Honorius III.