Caledonii - Caledonians, Picts and Romans The Romans called the tribes of the north the ‘Caledones’ or ‘Caledonii’ and named their land ‘Caledonia’. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that the inhabitants of Caledonia had ‘red hair and large limbs’; they were a fierce people that were quick to fight when they first saw the Roman invaders.
By the fourth century AD, the predominant race in northern Scotland were the Picts, the name was coined by the Romans who referred to them as 'Picti' meaning 'painted ones', which referred to the Pictish custom of either tattooing their bodies or covering themselves with warpaint.
A, late-16th century, vision of a Pictish warrior (clearly based on Herodian's description of the “barbarians” of Caledonia) by John White. The overall blue tinting of the body is inspired by a remark made by Julius Caesar, who had spent a few weeks in the south-eastern corner of Britain in 55BC and 54BC: “All the Britons, without exception, stain themselves with woad, which produces a blueish tint; and this gives them a wild look in battle.”
The earliest surviving mention of the Picts dates from AD297. In a poem praising the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, the orator Eumenius wrote that the Britons were already accustomed to the semi-naked "Picti and Hiberni (Irish) as their enemies."
Jarlshof - The Most Amazing Historical Site I've Ever Seen
Kings of Dalriada: Despite the onslaughts of the Picts, Dál Riata continued to expand. in the mid ninth century its king Kenneth MacAlpin brought the Picts permanently under Dalriadic rule, after which the whole country became known as Scotland. Little is known about his father Alpin, though legend states he won a victory over the Picts who three months later killed him, displaying his severed head at their camp. Kenneth succeeded him in Dalriada and also ruled in Pictavia or Pictland.