Example of a p-value computation. The vertical coordinate is the probability density of each outcome, computed under the null hypothesis. The p-value is the area under the curve past the observed data point.

Example of a p-value computation. The vertical coordinate is the probability density of each outcome, computed under the null hypothesis. The p-value is the area under the curve past the observed data point.

P-values have taken quite a beating lately. These widely used and commonly misapplied statistics have been blamed for giving a veneer of legitimacy to dodgy study results, encouraging bad research …