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Gothic / black-letter script evolved from Carolingian in the later middle ages, circa 1200 AD, became the dominant handwriting from the 12C until the Italian Renaissance (1400–1600 AD). It was not as clear as Carolingian, but was narrower, darker & denser. The dot above the i was added to differentiate it from the similar strokes of the n, m, & u. The u was created as separate from the v, which had been used for both sounds. Compact handwriting saved space, as parchment was expensive...

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