NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate…
There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. However, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily for six months with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist ketamine showed decreased locomotor activity and increased apoptosis of cells in their prefrontal cortices.
Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine), (PCP) and known colloquially as angel dust or wet, is a recreational dissociative drug. Formerly used as an anesthetic agent, PCP exhibits both hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist.PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist. PCP, like ketamine, also acts as a D2 receptor partial agonist. D2 receptor antagonists (such as haloperidol) can be used in the treatment of PCP psychosis.
Methoxetamine (MXE) or 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE is a chemical of the arylcyclohexylamine class which has been sold as a designer drug. It is a derivative of ketamine that also contains structural features of eticyclidine and 3-MeO-PCP. Methoxetamine is thought to behave as a NMDA receptor antagonist and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, though it has not been formally profiled pharmacologically.
My friend, Duncan Momaney coauthored this published paper at age 22!!! I bow humbly before a man who works hard to advance knowledge! - The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and memantine preferentially increase the choice for a small, immediate reward in low-impulsive rats