NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate…
There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. However, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily for six months with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist ketamine showed decreased locomotor activity and increased apoptosis of cells in their prefrontal cortices.
Memantine May Be Useful in OCD, ADHD, and Autism. Memantine (Namenda) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist. in bipolar depression, memantine has an initial antidepressant augmentation effect when added to lamotrigine, an inhibitor of glutamate release. Patients with moderate to severe OCD taking memantine and fluoxetine were more likely to achieve remission after 8 weeks than patients taking placebo and fluoxetine.
Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine), (PCP) and known colloquially as angel dust or wet, is a recreational dissociative drug. Formerly used as an anesthetic agent, PCP exhibits both hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist.PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist. PCP, like ketamine, also acts as a D2 receptor partial agonist. D2 receptor antagonists (such as haloperidol) can be used in the treatment of PCP psychosis.
Methoxetamine (MXE) or 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE is a chemical of the arylcyclohexylamine class which has been sold as a designer drug. It is a derivative of ketamine that also contains structural features of eticyclidine and 3-MeO-PCP. Methoxetamine is thought to behave as a NMDA receptor antagonist and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, though it has not been formally profiled pharmacologically.