"This Double Helix is a scientific model of B deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the most common form of DNA. DNA is a chemical carrier of our genes. It has an elegant geometric structure that allows it to store a massive amount of information. Every organism has its own DNA, and it is our DNA that makes each of us unique. Beads representing Phosphorus and Deoxyribose are 15 mm wide and multifaceted, and beads representing nitrogenous bases are oval and flat, 25 mmX20 mm."
This DNA is a teaching model; It demonstrates different structural units of DNA: Phosphorus, Oxygen, Deoxyribose, CH2 group, 4 types of nitrogenous bases and bonding molecules of hydrogen. Each unit is shape and color coded.
The structure of DNA is similar to a ladder. It has a chemical phosphate and sugar backbone, which make up the sides of the ladder. (Deoxyribose is the sugar found in the backbone of DNA.) The two sides of this sugar-phosphate backbone are four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). (A grouping like this of a phosphate, a sugar, and a base makes up a subunit of DNA which is known as a nucleotide.
A diagram shows the three separate components of a nucleotide and how they are combined to form a complete molecule. A nitrogenous base is represented as a purple hexagon. A sugar is represented as a grey pentagon. A phosphate group is represented as a light brown circle. A cut-away from the generic nitrogen base shows the chemical structure of the three types of pyrimidine bases (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) and the two types of purine bases (adenine and guanine).
ATP and cAMP are two of the best known nucleotides. Nucleotides are organic compounds with a nitrogenous base, a monosaccharide, and at least one phosphate group. ATP is a coenzyme that is considered the molecular unit of currency that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is used in glycolysis, anaerobic fermentation, aerobic respiration, etc.