See figure: 'Neurochemical targets of methamphetamine. The picture shows the...' from publication 'The Effects of Locus Coeruleus and Norepinephrine in Methamphetamine Toxicity' on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.
Researchers pinpoint brain region as ‘ground zero’ of Alzheimer’s disease. It's the "locus coeruleus", a small bluish part of the brainstem that releases norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter responsible for regulating heart rate, attention, memory and cognition.
Researchers pinpoint brain region as ‘ground zero’ of Alzheimer’s disease The locus coeruleus is a small part of the brainstem that releases the neurotransmitter responsible for regulating heart rate, attention, memory and cognition.
Ketamine blocks glutamate NMDA receptors in the brain. Increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, important for long-term memory and the creation of new synapses) and restores healthy mushroom-shaped spines on the dendrites of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. It may also affect the monoamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine. In rats, increased the firing rate of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus and also increased spontaneous firing dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area.