April 29th 1770: Cook lands at Botany Bay On this day in 1770 Captain James Cook and his ship the Endeavour landed at Botany Bay, Australia. Cook’s ‘discovery’ of Australia and his claiming the land for Britain led to its future colonisation by Britain as a penal colony. Botany Bay is in Sydney, New South Wales and was initially called ‘Sting Ray Harbour’ by Cook due to the stingrays they caught there but he later named it Botany Bay due to the vast quantity of plants there.
Captain James Cook's ship The Resolution and his crew became the first Europeans to sail below the Antarctic Circle, n this day 17th January, 1773.Cook also surveyed, mapped and took possession for Britain of South Georgia. He almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica but tuned back towards Tahiti to resupply his ship, and then turned southward to continue his search for the continent
Arrival of the First Fleet in Australia The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent “New Holland.” Other European explorers followed until, in 1770, James Cook charted the East Coast of Australia for Britain and returned with recommendation to establish a colony at Botany Bay (Sydney), New South Wales