What are taliban? The Taliban (طالبان "students"), or Taleban, is Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan, formed government, ruled as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from Sep 1996 - Dec 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. It even gained diplomatic recognition from three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and UAE (shame on all of them). Mohammed Omar the founder, has been a spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994.