Memory Retention and the Forgetting Curve Infographic examines how the human brain absorbs and categorizes information differently. According to the infographic, there is a specific formula that describes how individuals retain and forget information depending on how material is learned, how meaningful it is and the difficulty of the material.
How to Remember Better: Active Recall. When we first see new information, it is stored for about 30 seconds, as a "working memory." The more times you recall the information, the better it will move to your long-term memory for better recall.
"How Human Memory Works" -- excellent article from science.howstuffworks -- This should be taught to students in elementary school, reinforced and modeled throughout middle and high school, and reinforced again freshman year of college. Of course, teachers must know how to teach TO the brain, so they should understand the process as well.