A typical 1800's kitchen garden would include, "Marigolds to keep the bugs away, Coreopsis for dyeing wool, Cone Flowers for colds, Hyssop for sore throats, Peppermint Chamomile for upset stomachs, Sage to improve memory, Tansy to ward off insects, Lavender for sachets, Parsley to ease the pain of bee stings, Basil to help ease childbirth pains, Chives for cooking, Marjoram and Thyme for softening skin, Dill for colicky children, and Lemon Balm for melancholia." (Living History Farms).
Herb Garden Design: Some examples of herb garden design. A basic formal herb garden design useful for anyone (even a beginner!): take a geometric shape (circle, square, triangle, etc), divide it up with pathways into equal sections, then plant each section. See examples here: http://www.edible-landscape-design.com/herb-garden-design.html