December: "We can tell from the band numbers how many birds are present, and how many of these are survivors from each previous year of banding" (94). The ruffed grouse show the evolution and effects of the winter on the wildlife. Each species has a different lifespan, and to track this in the grouse, the bands are used.
The Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is the largest grouse in North America, where it is known as the Greater Sage-Grouse. Its range is sagebrush country in the western United States and southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada.