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from Smithsonian

The Man Who Wrote the Pledge of Allegiance

Originally composed by Francis Bellamy in 1892 and formally adopted by Congress as the pledge in 1942


Bring back to our schools everything that is in this picture. Children dressed properly, The Pledge of Allegiance, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln pictures on the wall.


When minister Francis Bellamy published the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892, James Upham devised a salute to go along with it -- snapping the heels together and extending the right arm, hand lifted, palm down; at the words, ‘to my Flag,’ (the original wording) the right palm turned upward, toward the Flag, remaining that way until the end of the pledge, when hands were to immediately drop to the side. In 1942 the Nazi-esque salute was quietly changed to hand over heart. (from…


September 8, 1892 - The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited. The original text was, "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The phrase "under God" was added in 1954 during the height of the Cold War.


Pledge of Allegiance First Published  On September 8, 1892, Francis Bellamy’s Pledge of Allegiance was published in The Youth’s Companion magazine to


The Bellamy salute is the salute described by Francis Bellamy, to accompany the American Pledge of Allegiance, which he had authored. During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian fascists and Nazis adopted a salute which had the same form, which resulted in controversy over its use in the United States. It was officially replaced by the customary hand-over-heart method we see today when Congress amended the Flag Code on December 22, 1942.