Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

Five Generations of Computer

Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

Paul Rand (attributed) book cover design, 1958-61. IBM Reference Manual: 709/7090 FORTRAN Programming System by NewDocuments on Etsy

Paul Rand (attributed) book cover design, 1958-61. IBM Reference Manual: 709/7090 FORTRAN Programming System

Paul Rand (attributed) book cover design, 1958-61. IBM Reference Manual: 709/7090 FORTRAN Programming System by NewDocuments on Etsy

This FORTRAN study guide is a "hands on" introduction to programming using FORTRAN. The emphasis in this course is to learn how to program rather than to learn FORTRAN. http://www.fortrantutorial.com/index.php

This FORTRAN study guide is a "hands on" introduction to programming using FORTRAN. The emphasis in this course is to learn how to program rather than to learn FORTRAN. http://www.fortrantutorial.com/index.php

Efficient FORTRAN Programming (Wiley Professional Computing) by Anton Kruger. This book shows how to program for efficiency and explains that even simple alterations to existing programs can lead to dramatic reductions in execution time. http://search.lib.uiowa.edu/01IOWA:default_scope:01IOWA_ALMA21300559710002771

Efficient FORTRAN Programming (Wiley Professional Computing) by Anton Kruger. This book shows how to program for efficiency and explains that even simple alterations to existing programs can lead to dramatic reductions in execution time. http://search.lib.uiowa.edu/01IOWA:default_scope:01IOWA_ALMA21300559710002771

July 23, 1930 Daniel McCracken, who wrote the first textbook on FORTRAN, was born. A student of mathematics and chemistry, McCracken started working in computers at General Electric in 1951, training workers in using the new technology. Based on this teaching experience, McCracken wrote several important computer programming textbooks, most notably A Guide to FORTRAN Programming in 1961.

July 23, 1930 Daniel McCracken, who wrote the first textbook on FORTRAN, was born. A student of mathematics and chemistry, McCracken started working in computers at General Electric in 1951, training workers in using the new technology. Based on this teaching experience, McCracken wrote several important computer programming textbooks, most notably A Guide to FORTRAN Programming in 1961.

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