In Situ Hybridization (ISH) In Situ Hybridization (ISH) refers to localizing a specific DNA or RNA sequence in whole embryos or tissues/tissue sections/cells using a labeled probe. The probe is either a labeled complementary DNA (oligoprobe) or a complementary RNA (riboprobe).... http://www.creative-diagnostics.com/In-Situ-Hybridization-ISH.htm
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology -DNA makes RNA -RNA makes Proteins -Proteins help DNA (and sometimes RNA) to replicate itself -And some Proteins, like those from retrovirus HIV can turn RNA back into DNA (called complementary DNA or cDNA for short)
Real-time (RT) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the most sensitive and reliable technique for detecting viruses. The technology involves making complementary DNA copies of viral RNA, multiplying the number of DNA copies and staining them with a fluorescent dye. The subtle differences in fluorescence intensity reflect the presence and quantity of viral RNA. Chapter 96
Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: One or more sigma factor protein binds to the RNA polymerase holoenzyme, allowing it to bind to promoter DNA. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides. RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides to the complementary nucleotides of one DNA strand.
In June 2013 SCOTUS ruled in Assoc. for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics that claims for isolated DNA sequences are NOT patent-eligible subject matter under 35 U.S.C. §101, but claims for *complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences are patent-eligible under the statute. Specifically, the Court held that naturally occurring DNA is a product of nature and cannot be patented merely because it has been isolated; but, cDNA can be patented if it has been *synthetically created and occurs…
Nanotechnology is beginning to use DNA as a scaffold for engineering various machinery. In 2005, Paul Rothemund of the California Institute of Technology was able to shape a viral genome into a smiley face, which was then copied onto a complementary DNA sequence and reproduced. Friedrich Simmel was then able develop a nano-scale ruler using the same technique. The ability to shape DNA provides many exciting possibilities, such as customised enzymes to support artificial organs.
By the biochemical technique of rolling-circle amplification (RCA), a circular oligonucleotide sequence serves as a template for the synthesis of a complementary single-stranded DNA chain. If the DNA chain contains aptamers for a protein such as thrombin or lysozyme, subsequent complexation results in periodic protein–DNA composites. I. Willner et al. describe such compounds and even assemblies of DNA, protein, and gold nanoparticles: http://doi.org/bw32sj