The Crusades: 1096 to Many Muslims considered it a vicious invasion by the Europeans onto their lands. The Christians treated the Muslims and the Jews much harshly during the Crusades than the Muslims ever did to the Christians.
In the Ottomans captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire. During the next two centuries, they brought their rule to much of the Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe. Their navy dominated the eastern Mediterranean.
History map of the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople. Illustrating Wall of old (Greek/Byzantium), Wall of Constantine Double Wall of Theodosius II Wall of Heraclius Wall of mediaeval Galata, Wall of the New Seraglio, Byzantine names.
Constantinople- the capital the eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires.