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Why was a 9th century Viking woman buried with a ring that says ‘for Allah’ on it?

A ring discovered in a Viking grave in Birka, a historic trading center in what is now Sweden. - Christer Ahlin/Statens historiska museum : 9th c. Materials: silver, colored glass Inscribed: To/For Allah. Origin: likely Abbasid Caliphate

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Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric bin Zeyad‎ (طارق بن زیاد), (born in Oued Tafna, modern day Algeria, died in 720), known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed), was a Berber Muslim and Umayyad General who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711 under the orders of Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Tariq ibn Ziyad (طارق بن زباد) is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Iberian history.

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Prayer niche from Maidan mosque, Kashan, Iran ~ now at ~ Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany | ©David Almeida

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Mustansiriya Madrasah, Baghdad, Iraq Mustansiriya Madrasah (Arabic,المدرسة المستنصرية) is a historical building in Baghdad, Iraq. It was the premises of one of the oldest Islamic universities in the world, established in 1227 as a Madrasah by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir making it one of the oldest universities in the world. It is located on the left bank of the Tigris River, the building survived the Mongol invasion of 1258, and has been restored.

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'The Abbasid Palace This remarkable building on the corner of 17 July Bridge and Al-Rashid St/Ahmedi Square with its beautiful arch is a fine example of Islamic architecture, reminiscent of that found in Samarkand. It was constructed during the reign of Caliph al Nasser Lidnillah (1179–1225).' Iraq: the Bradt Guide;

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