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American Samoa Mesuem, Ie Sina use in traditional Samoan wedding to prove if the (taupou) chiefs daughter is a virgin.

American Samoa Mesuem, Ie Sina use in traditional Samoan wedding to prove if the (taupou) chiefs daughter is a virgin.

Young girl wearing 'iesina, the bleached fine mat used to prove "worthiness" at a traditional Samoan marriage ceremony. (See Augustin Kraeme...

Young girl wearing 'iesina, the bleached fine mat used to prove "worthiness" at a traditional Samoan marriage ceremony. (See Augustin Kraeme...

The two matai travelled around Samoa gathering support for their cause, and Lauaki even sent I'iga to American Samoa to garner support for the Mau a Pule (Independence Movement).

The two matai travelled around Samoa gathering support for their cause, and Lauaki even sent I'iga to American Samoa to garner support for the Mau a Pule (Independence Movement).

Lauati (aka Lauaki) Namulau'ulu Mamoe (left) and two chiefs aboard German warship taking them to exile in Saipan, 1909. Author Alfred John Tattersall (1861 - 1951)

Lauati (aka Lauaki) Namulau'ulu Mamoe (left) and two chiefs aboard German warship taking them to exile in Saipan, 1909. Author Alfred John Tattersall (1861 - 1951)

Richard on the left is accompanied by his wife, Sophia Fruean, and their two children. Sophia was a third-generation descendant of Charles Fruean and Meleane Toluma’anave, of Lefaga.

Richard on the left is accompanied by his wife, Sophia Fruean, and their two children. Sophia was a third-generation descendant of Charles Fruean and Meleane Toluma’anave, of Lefaga.

Samoan high chief wearing his traditional headdress, 1900. Traditionally, every Samoan village had a chief council composed of representatives selected by the village’s families. The council had the authority to officiate in all community affairs and to pass laws and regulations

Samoan high chief wearing his traditional headdress, 1900. Traditionally, every Samoan village had a chief council composed of representatives selected by the village’s families. The council had the authority to officiate in all community affairs and to pass laws and regulations