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Kahikatea and rimu foliage Rimu foliage and seeds (top) are a little different from those of kahikatea (bottom): rimu carries its seeds on upturned branchlets. Rimu and kahikatea are massive conifer trees, widely distributed throughout New Zealand. Both belong to the podocarp family (Podocarpaceae) and bear single seeds at the tips of branchlets. As the seed ripens, the leaves next to it swell up, forming a juicy support known as a receptacle.


Koromiko Tender leaves were bruised and applied as a poultice for ulcers and veneral disease. Wet branches were thrown on a fire with whau and karamū, to make a steam bath treatment for broken bones.


Māhoe (Melicytus ramiflorus),a member of the violet family, is a common tree of coastal and lowland forest, and regenerating shrublands. It is also known as whiteywood, a reference to its pale bark. The leaves are bright green and coarsely toothed. The lacy leaf skeletons are common on the forest floor. Māhoe has separate male and female trees. Flowering is in late spring and summer, and berries ripen during late summer and autumn. Each berry contains six to seven seeds.

Kōtukutuku tree(Fuchsia excorticata) is considered to be the world’s largest fuchsia. In damp forest it can grow to 12 mtr tall and form a trunk over 1mtr in diameter. It is one of Nz's few truly deciduous trees, losing its leaves in winter in all but the warmest areas.

Kūmarahou Most medicinal uses of kūmarahou were recorded in the 1900s. The leaves were boiled and used as a soothing and healing agent. The juice of the leaves was also used in baths. Drinking the liquid in which leaves had been boiled was said to be good for rheumatism and asthma.(nz)

Kōwhai The bark of the kōwhai tree was heated in a calabash with hot stones, and made into a poultice for wounds or to rub on a sore back. A person bitten in the face by a seal had wai kōwhai (kōwhai juice) applied to their wounds, and was well within days. (nz)

Mānuka Ashes of mānuka were rubbed on the scalp to cure dandruff. Mānuka branches were used to splint broken limbs. Leaves were put in a calabash with water and hot stones, and the liquid was drunk to ease a fever. The bark was boiled in water, which was drunk to cure dysentery and diarrhoea.

Rātā The bark of the rātā tree was soaked in water, which was then applied as a lotion. A poultice of bark was put on sores, wounds and abscesses. The inner bark was steeped in water and drunk for diarrhoea and dysentery. Rātā nectar, collected by tapping the flowers against the inside of a calabash, was taken to cure a sore throat.